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You can find selected publications below. The titles link to a copy where it is available, but if you would like to read something that you can't find here, please let me know.


The Politics of Cybersecurity in the Middle East. Hurst/Oxford University Press, 2021.

Cyberspace and Instability. Edinburgh University Press, 2023 (co-edited with Robert Chesney and Max Smeets).



"Masculinist actionism: gender and strategic change in US cyber strategy". Security Studies, 2024 (with Katharine M. Millar).

"Cybersecurity diplomacy in the Middle East". Orient 65 (II), 2024.

"Enforcing exclusion: cybersecurity expertise in carceral conditions". H-Diplo Robert Jervis International Security Studies Forum Policy Roundtable III-4 (edited by Rebecca Slayton and Lilly Muller), 2024.

"Cybersecurity and the politics of knowledge production: towards a reflexive practice". Journal of Cyber Policy, 2024 (forum edited by Fabio Cristiano and Xymena Kurowska).

"Career connections: transnational expert networks and multilateral cybercrime negotiations". Contemporary Security Policy 45 (1), 2024, pp.45-71.

"Towards a decolonial cybersecurity: interrogating the racial-epistemic hierarchies that constitute cybersecurity expertise". Security Studies 32 (4-5), 2023, pp.622-652 (with Densua Mumford).

"The better angels of our digital nature? Offensive cyber capabilities and state violence". European Journal of International Security 8 (1), 2023, pp.130-149 (with Florian J. Egloff).

"Cybersecurity in the GCC: from economic development to geopolitical controversy". Middle East Policy 29 (1), 2022, pp.90-103 (with Bassant Hassib).

"Offensive cyber capabilities and state violence: three logics of integration". Journal of Global Security Studies 7 (1), 2022 (with Florian J. Egloff).

"Microtargeted propaganda by foreign actors: an interdisciplinary exploration". Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law 28 (6), 2021, pp.856-877 (with Ronan O Fathaigh, Tom Dobber, and Frederik Zuiderveen Borgesius).

"Manipulating uncertainty: cybersecurity politics in Egypt". Journal of Cybersecurity 7 (1), 2021 (with Bassant Hassib).

"The simulation of scandal: hack-and-leak operations, the Gulf states, and U.S. politics". Texas National Security Review 3 (4), Fall 2020.

"Cyber-noir: cybersecurity and popular culture". Contemporary Security Policy 41 (1), 2020, pp.82-107 (online 2019).

"Hack-and-leak operations: intrusion and influence in the Gulf". Journal of Cyber Policy 4 (2), 2019, pp.235-256.

"Family resemblance or family argument? Three perspectives on cybersecurity and their interaction". St Anthony's International Review 15 (1), 2019, pp.18-36.

“Enacting expertise: ritual and risk in cybersecurity”, Politics and Governance 6 (2), 2018, pp.31-40.


"Civil society in cyberwarfare: hack-and-leaks, attribution, and mobilisation", in T. Stevens and J. Devanny (ed.) Research Handbook on Cyberwarfare. Edward Elgar, forthcoming.

"Cybersecurity and ethnography", in C. Proctor and B. Spector (ed.) Inclusive Ethnography: Making Fieldwork Safer, Healthier and More Ethical. SAGE, 2024.

"Windmills of the mind: higher-order forms of disinformation in international politics", in T. Jančárková, L. Lindström,
M. Signoretti, I. Tolga and G. Visky (ed.), Going Viral: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict. NATO CCDCOE Publications, 2021.

"The cyber operation against Qatar News Agency", in M. Zweiri, M. Mizanur Rahman, and A. Kamal (ed.) The 2017 Gulf Crisis: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Springer, 2020.

"Disinformation in the Gulf", in M. Sexton and E. Campbell (ed.) Cyber War & Cyber Peace in the Middle East: Digital Conflict in the Cradle of Civilization. Middle East Institute, 2020.

"Ambiguity and appropriation: cybersecurity and cybercrime in Egypt and the Gulf", in D. Broeders and B. van den Berg (ed.) Governing Cyberspace: Behavior, Power and Diplomacy. Rowman & Littlefield, 2020.

“Cybersecurity governance in the GCC”, in R. Ellis and V. Mohan (ed.) Rewired: Cybersecurity Governance. Wiley-Blackwell, 2019.


"The role of the private sector in combatting gendered cyber harms". Chatham House, 3 June 2024 (with Isabella Wilkinson, Julia-Silvana Hofstetter, and Mardiya Siba Yahaya).

"Hate speech, data breach and state overreach: connections between gendered cyber harms". Chatham House, 24 May 2024 (with Bassant Hassib and Amrit Swali).


"Gender equality, cybersecurity, and security sector governance". DCAF (Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance), 27 September 2022 (with Katharine Millar and Tatiana Tropina).


"Rational not reactive: re-evaluating Iranian cyber strategy". Harvard Belfer Center Paper, 7 October 2021 (with Michael McGetrick).

"The implementation of digital surveillance infrastructures in the Gulf". POMEPS Studies 43 on Digital Activism and Authoritarian Adaptation in the Middle East, 5 August 2021.

"Cybersecurity in the MENA region: shared insecurities, diverse responses". Al Sharq Strategic Research, 25 May 2021.

"Countering cyber proliferation: zeroing in on Access-as-a-service". Atlantic Council Cyber Statecraft Initiative, 1 March 2021 (with Winnona DeSombre, JD Work, Robert Morgus, Patrick Howell O'Neill, Luca Allodi, and Trey Herr).

"Gender approaches to cybersecurity: design, defence and response". United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 21 January 2021 (with Katharine Millar and Tatiana Tropina).

"Understanding the tactics behind hack-and-leak operations".​​ Atlantisch Perspectief no.4, September 2020.

"Is the GCC cyber resilient?" Chatham House Briefing Paper, 9 March 2020 (with Joyce Hakmeh).

“Contesting ‘Cyber’”. New America Foundation, Washington D.C. December 2017 (with Max Smeets).

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