You can find selected publications below. The titles link to a copy where it is available, but if you would like to read something that you can't find here, please let me know.


The Politics of Cybersecurity in the Middle East. Hurst/Oxford University Press, 2021.



"Cybersecurity in the GCC: from economic development to geopolitical controversy". Middle East Policy, online preprint 21 March 2022 (with Bassant Hassib).

"Microtargeted propaganda by foreign actors: an interdisciplinary exploration". Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, online preprint 16 November 2021 (with Ronan O Fathaigh, Tom Dobber, and Frederik Zuiderveen Borgesius).

"Offensive cyber capabilities and state violence: three logics of integration". Journal of Global Security Studies, online preprint 27 October 2021 (with Florian J. Egloff).

"The better angels of our digital nature? Offensive cyber capabilities and state violence". European Journal of International Security, online preprint 12 October 2021 (with Florian J. Egloff).

"Manipulating uncertainty: cybersecurity politics in Egypt". Journal of Cybersecurity 7 (1) 2021 (with Bassant Hassib).

"The simulation of scandal: hack-and-leak operations, the Gulf states, and U.S. politics". Texas National Security Review 3 (4), Fall 2020.

"Cyber-noir: cybersecurity and popular culture". Contemporary Security Policy 41 (1) 2020, pp.82-107 (online 2019).

"Hack-and-leak operations: intrusion and influence in the Gulf". Journal of Cyber Policy 4 (2) 2019, pp.235-256.

"Family resemblance or family argument? Three perspectives on cybersecurity and their interaction". St Anthony's International Review 15 (1), 2019, pp.18-36.

“Enacting expertise: ritual and risk in cybersecurity”, Politics and Governance 6 (2), 2018, pp.31-40.



"Windmills of the mind: higher-order forms of disinformation in international politics", in T. Jančárková, L. Lindström,
M. Signoretti, I. Tolga and G. Visky (ed.), Going Viral: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Cyber Conflict. NATO CCDCOE Publications, 2021.

"The cyber operation against Qatar News Agency", in M. Zweiri, M. Mizanur Rahman, and A. Kamal (ed.) The 2017 Gulf Crisis: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Springer, 2020.

"Disinformation in the Gulf", in M. Sexton and E. Campbell (ed.) Cyber War & Cyber Peace in the Middle East: Digital Conflict in the Cradle of Civilization. Middle East Institute, 2020.

"Ambiguity and appropriation: cybersecurity and cybercrime in Egypt and the Gulf", in D. Broeders and B. van den Berg (ed.) Governing Cyberspace: Behavior, Power and Diplomacy. Rowman & Littlefield, 2020.

“Cybersecurity governance in the GCC”, in R. Ellis and V. Mohan (ed.) Rewired: Cybersecurity Governance. Wiley-Blackwell, 2019.


"Rational not reactive: re-evaluating Iranian cyber strategy". Harvard Belfer Center Paper, 7 October 2021 (with Michael McGetrick).

"The implementation of digital surveillance infrastructures in the Gulf". POMEPS Studies 43 on Digital Activism and Authoritarian Adaptation in the Middle East, 5 August 2021.

"Cybersecurity in the MENA region: shared insecurities, diverse responses". Al Sharq Strategic Research, 25 May 2021.

"Countering cyber proliferation: zeroing in on Access-as-a-service". Atlantic Council Cyber Statecraft Initiative, 1 March 2021 (with Winnona DeSombre, JD Work, Robert Morgus, Patrick Howell O'Neill, Luca Allodi, and Trey Herr).

"Gender approaches to cybersecurity: design, defence and response". United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 21 January 2021 (with Katharine Millar and Tatiana Tropina).

"Understanding the tactics behind hack-and-leak operations".​​ Atlantisch Perspectief no.4, September 2020.

"Is the GCC cyber resilient?" Chatham House Briefing Paper, 9 March 2020 (with Joyce Hakmeh).

“Contesting ‘Cyber’”. New America Foundation, Washington D.C. December 2017 (with Max Smeets).

“Discourses of cybersecurity: regional cyber risks in the Middle East”. International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, March 2016.


“Negotiating order in cyberspace: security spirals or trade foundations?” German Marshall Fund, Brussels, February 2016 (with Catherine Laporte-Oshiro).


"Microtargeted propaganda by foreign actors". EU Directions Blog, 1 April 2022 (with Ronan Ó Fathaigh, Tom Dobber, and Frederik Zuiderveen Borgesius).

"The U.K. as a Responsible Cyber Power: Brilliant Branding or Empty Bluster?", Lawfare, 23 November 2021 (with Max Smeets).

"Making the concept of violence central to the study of offensive cyber operations". Offensive Cyber Working Group, 9 November 2021 (with Florian J. Egloff).

"Co-opting cybersecurity in Egypt". Atlantic Council MENASource, 11 May 2021 (with Bassant Hassib).

"Incorporating gender considerations into international cybersecurity policy and practice". Women in International Security Netherlands, 22 February 2021 (with Katharine Millar and Tatiana Tropina).

"Advancing gender considerations in the cyber OEWG". UNIDIR Commentary, 3 December 2020 (with Katharine Millar and Tatiana Tropina).

"Hack-and-leak operations and U.S. cyber policy". War on the Rocks, August 2020.


"Big cyber ideas: cyber policy, creativity and inspiration". Leiden Security and Global Affairs blog, 8 June 2020.

"Iran sharpens cyber tools for foreign policy ends". Oxford Analytica, 21 March 2019.

"Between multistakeholderism and sovereignty: cyber norms in Egypt and the Gulf states". War on the Rocks, Oct. 2018

"Iran may prioritise cyber espionage, not attack". Oxford Analytica, 11 July 2018.


"Cybersecurity expertise in the Gulf states". LSE Middle East Centre Blog, 29 May 2018.

“Lessons in cyberpower from the GCC split”. Oxford Analytica, 6 February 2018.

“The word 'cyber' now means everything - and nothing at all”. Slate, 01 December 2017 (with Max Smeets).