London, UK: I am a senior research fellow in cyber policy at Chatham House. I am also a co-founder and trustee of the European Cyber Conflict Research Initiative (ECCRI), and hold non-resident fellowships at the Atlantic Council's Cyber Statecraft Initiative, and The Hague Program for International Cybersecurity.

 

The Hague, Netherlands: From 2019 to 2022, I was an Assistant Professor at the Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) at the University of Leiden. At Leiden, I was the Director of the Executive Master in Cyber Security. I taught courses on "Espionage and War in Cyberspace" in the MSc Crisis and Security Management, "Syria: a case study" in the Bachelors in Security Studies, and "The Global Politics of Cybersecurity" in the Executive Master Cyber Security.

 

Cambridge, MA: For the academic year 2018-2019, I was a postdoctoral research fellow with the Cyber Project and Middle East Initiative at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. I was also part of their China Cyber Policy Initiative.

 

Oxford, UK: In 2018, I completed a DPhil in International Relations at the University of Oxford, on cybersecurity in Egypt and the Gulf states (here), as part of the University of Oxford's Centre for Technology and Global Affairs. While at Oxford, I taught tutorials on International Security and Conflict, Politics in the Middle East, International Relations, and International Relations in the Cold War.

 

Before my doctoral studies, I completed an MSc at Birkbeck College, University of London, and a BA at the University of Cambridge.